Those big belts we see folks strap on at the gym aren’t just a fashion statement — they’re designed for safety, too. Weightlifting belts help support the core and protect the lower back, but they shouldn’t necessarily be used during an entire workout . Plus, weightlifting belts aren’t always necessary for strength training, and some people prefer not to use them at all. So unless face-bulging, muscle-wrecking iron pumping is on the schedule (and even if it is), it may be best to leave the belt at home.
BELOW THE BELT — WHY IT MATTERS
Full-body weightlifting movements like squats, deadlifts, and overhead presses are great for building muscles and strength, but they can also cause injuries in the lower back because they load the spine with weight . Weightlifting belts protect the lower back in a few ways: First, they increase intra-abdominal pressure, or the pressure within the abdominal cavity, so the abdominal (or core) muscles support the spine as much as possible  . Weightlifting belts also help protect the lower back by reducing hyperextension and possible inflammation around the spine resulting from heavy lifting. The belt helps keep the lower back propped up so it can’t fall back into a potentially harmful position. And the belt is useful during heavy weightlifting that places pressure on the spine, since it prevents spinal shrinkage, a sci-fi sounding term that refers to the compression of the vertebral discs . Some experts recommend using weightlifting belts when moving loads upwards of 85 percent of a one-rep max (or 85 percent of the amount of weight you can move once).
Weightlifting belts come in a range of shapes, sizes, and styles. Belts geared for the gym are thick and tough and are often made of leather or firm synthetic materials, with clamps and prongs to secure them in place. Other types of belts can be useful for people who work in factories or on delivery trucks and lift heavy loads throughout the day . These belts are made of soft materials so they can be worn loosely all day and tightened when necessary. But, even for weightlifting, it isn’t necessary to wear a belt for an entire workout.
THINGS JUST GOT HEAVY — THE ANSWER/DEBATE
Don’t get into a tight situation: Weightlifting belts shouldn’t be worn tightly for the entire duration of a workout . Only tighten the belt when it comes time to lift loads upwards of 85 percent of a one rep max. (A weight belt worn loosely around the stomach will not help or hinder performance; it’s just convenient so it doesn’t have to come on and off regularly during the workout.)
Ultimately, to wear or not to wear depends on personal preference, since there’s still some debate about the function of weightlifting belts. In some cases, wearing a weightlifting belt can increase blood pressure  . And fitness experts aren’t certain if wearing a tight weightlifting belt means the abs take longer to get stronger; it’s possible the core muscles don’t work as hard with the extra back support . Plus, it may be risky to rely too much on the belt: One study found baggage handlers who wore weightlifting belts on the job were more prone to back injury once they stopped wearing the belts . Keep in mind it’s still possible to lift heavy loads safely without a weightlifting belt, as long as the lifter sticks to proper form and gives the muscles adequate recovery time to avoid back injury .
To buy a weightlifting belt, check out the local sporting goods store or shop online if you know the right size. Make sure the belt width fits your torso size — when cinched around the belly button the belt shouldn’t knock against the ribs or pinch the hip in a deep squat. To put on the weightlifting belt, place the belt loosely around the stomach, suck in the stomach slightly, and pull that thing tight. (There should be no space between the stomach and belt.) Then close the clasps, put those spotters in position and get ready to go — crank up the music! As with all intense athletic activity, find quality coaching if unsure about how to do an exercise, especially during very heavy lifting. Weightlifting belts are made to help, not hinder, so use them wisely.
Published by Kyle J. Smith on May 10, 2012.